Cucumbers are a green, sweet, juicy vegetable that grows in every gardener in the garden. Plants they are quite whimsical and require careful care. What kind of soil they like and at what temperature they grow will be discussed further in our article.
To grow cucumbers, the soil must be almost neutral. You can use slightly acidic. In such conditions, the plant will give a rich and high-quality harvest. If the earth is acidic, then it needs to be alkalized, or the plant will simply gradually die.
To do this, it is necessary to add limestone to it. On average, 1 square meter will require 500 grams of the mixture. In this place, cucumbers can be grown for another two years, and then change the place of growth.
|Soil type||PH level||Summer temperature||Suitability for cucumber|
|Peat-bog and bog-podzolic||3,0-5||Big difference day and night||Unsuitable, requires strong liming and protection from temperature extremes|
|Podzolic, sod-podzolic, red earth||4,5-5,6||From 8.8 ° C at a depth of 20 cm||Unsuitable, requires deoxidation and the creation of warm beds, the introduction of humus|
|Gray forest||4,5-6,5||From 15⁰С at a depth of 20 cm||Suitable, in some cases requires a little liming|
|Permafrost taiga||4,5-7,3||Low||Unsuitable, in some cases requires liming and the creation of warm beds|
|Chernozem, gray soil, chestnut||6,5-7,5||From 15⁰С at a depth of 20 cm||Suitable.|
|Carbonate, saline, saline||7,5-9,5||From 15 ° C to 25 ° C at a depth of 20 cm||Unsuitable, requires strong leaching, liberation from salts, enrichment with humus.|
The best soil for growing cucumbers is considered to have a high moisture content. Loamy soils are best in type. Sandy ones are best avoided, as the plants simply will not have enough water. Cucumbers love warm air and bright sunlight.
It is better to plant them in flat areas. On the hills, there will be insufficient moisture, since it will drain into the lowlands, while the lowlands, on the contrary, accumulate too much water, which can lead to decay of the roots.
Also, in the lowlands, the air temperature will be slightly lower, and cucumbers are very fond of warmth. Therefore, it is recommended to plant cucumbers at the end of May.
Before planting seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to check its acidity. The easiest way to react at home is with regular table vinegar. To do this, you need to take a handful of earth, put it on a glass bowl. It is better not to use iron dishes, this may give a false result.
Pour vinegar over the soil. If the medium is neutral or alkaline, then the reaction will go and hiss will occur, bubbles will appear. Everybody had such a reaction at least once in their life when they cooked pastries or pancakes. If there is no reaction, it means that it is acidic and needs to be limed. For these purposes, use dolomite flour, ground limestone. This should be done in the fall. Therefore, the place for future cucumbers must be chosen after harvest.
For other alternative methods, see the table:
|Indicator plants||Soil reaction and suitability for cucumbers|
|Horse sorrel, horsetail, crowberry, blueberry, mosses, meadow mariannik||High acidity. Strong liming is required.|
|Lingonberry, wild rosemary, sorrel, mint, bearberry, marsh goldenseal, "cat's paw"||Average acidity. Deoxidation is required.|
|Bellflower broad-leaved, hairy sedge, kupena, shititnik||Weak acidity or neutral soil. Suitable for cucumbers.|
|Mother and stepmother, yarrow, chamomile, meadow clover, wild strawberry, quinoa, nettle, shepherd's purse, sow thistle, runny||Neutral soil. Suitable for cucumbers.|
|Shaggy sedge, "goose foot", wormwood, vetch, alfalfa, meadow arzhanets, sharp fire||Weakly alkaline soil. Suitable for cucumbers.|
Cucumbers need to change their place of growth every few years. The more often you change, the better the harvest will be. The best predecessors are onions, cabbage, tomato, potatoes, rye, oats, clover. You can not plant cucumbers after growing melons, pumpkins, cucumbers, squash.
This is because these crops feed on the same minerals as cucumbers, thus depleting the soil. They also have common diseases, which can persist in the soil for the next season, infect new plants.
The soil must be loosened to saturate it with fresh oxygen. You can start from the end of May. It is also necessary to fertilize it with natural organic or mineral fertilizers. If it was carried out in the fall, then in the spring it does not need to be fertilized.
We must not forget to monitor the growth of weeds in the prepared area.
They will simply process any added beneficial minerals, so the cucumbers may not have enough. To do this, you need to carry out periodic weeding. The smaller the plant, the less fertilizer it consumed.
It is better to apply manure in the fall so that it has time to turn into humus. If the soil is heavy clay, then it must be fertilized no later than 30-40 days before planting cucumbers in the soil. The manure contains a large amount of large minerals. Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium - all these substances are contained in it. They are absorbed into plants and provide excellent yields. It is necessary to apply about 6-9 kg per square meter of soil in autumn.
An excellent option is to use the place where the compost pit was previously located. In such a place, cucumbers will grow in the open field. Humus will give off a lot of heat and energy. If you cover the seedlings with a thick film on top, this will create a greenhouse effect. Moreover, humus releases a large amount of nutrients suitable for cucumbers.
Ash is very similar in composition to potash fertilizers and can serve as an excellent substitute. It is usually brought in 200 grams per square meter of land. Ash should be added in the spring, after loosening the soil.
Complex fertilizers created artificially are widely used in horticulture. They have a wide assortment.
Decide which fertilizer is best for you individually. A consultant in a specialized store will help you resolve this issue. You should not buy fertilizers from the markets and from your hands, since the exact composition of such liquids and powders is not known. This can harm future plants or spoil the soil.
The ground temperature in the root zone must be at least 20aboutC. Seeds germinate at lower night temperatures around 15aboutC. This is the minimum critical, but not dangerous temperature. Plants can still withstand it, but they will sprout for a long time.
The harvest from such plants may not be the best, so it is better to grow them immediately at home on the windowsill. If the temperature is below 12aboutC, it can be harmful to the seeds. They will start to freeze and stop growing. Therefore, it is better to avoid a critical temperature regime or cover the seedlings. Adult plants tolerate cold temperatures better. The older the plant, the more hardy it is. It is better to harden seedlings a couple of times before planting in the ground.
To do this, you need to put it in a place with a low temperature a couple of times. Cucumbers grow best at 24aboutFROM. At night, the optimal decrease should not be lower than 15aboutC. At too high temperatures, plants die. Too high evaporation of moisture will lead to root suppression and drying out of the cucumber. The leaves will turn yellow and fall off. The set fruits will stop growing and dry up, after which they will simply fall off.
Cucumbers require increased attention both during planting and during subsequent care. They can be grown both in a greenhouse (greenhouse) and in the open field. Greenhouses should be well lit so that the plant has enough light. Before you start growing them, you need to study all the nuances and determine your own capabilities.
Let's try to figure out how to prepare the soil for planting cucumbers. If you consider in detail, then there is nothing difficult. The whole process is divided into several stages: loosening, fertilizing, planting. Moreover, it will be similar both in greenhouse conditions and in the case of planting on open beds. We will analyze each stage in more detail, taking into account the peculiarities of planting (greenhouse or open ground).
Preparing the soil for cucumbers in the spring is very important. It will largely depend on her how abundant the harvest will turn out. The first thing to do is right. choose a landing site... After making sure that the place is free of imperfections (uneven soil, high clay content, looseness, sand), you can start sowing seeds.
It is important to remember that cucumbers do not like shaded areas or windblown areas.
The soil for seedlings of cucumbers should be well dug... Make sure that the soil does not contain any foreign matter that can harm the seedlings. Before sowing, fertilize the soil and measure the temperature of the ground.
The best soil for cucumbers is loam and sandy loam.
Fertilizers can be divided into three groups:
It must be remembered that the soil for cucumbers must be loose.
If the soil is properly prepared, it is necessary to ensure that the planted cucumbers grow weed-free, which must be removed as soon as the sprouts hatch.
Cucumber is a very thermophilic plant, if not to say, heat demanding.
Its growth processes can take place in the temperature range from 14.5 to 42 ͦ С. The optimal daytime temperature, contributing to the normal growth and development of the plant, is from 25 to 30 ͦC, the optimal nighttime temperature is from 15 to 18 ͦC.
Temperature requirements are manifested already from the moment of germination of cucumber seeds. The temperature of the beginning of their germination is in the range from 10 to 12 ͦ С, and the leaves and fruits begin to grow at 15-16 degrees. If the temperature is raised during seed germination to 25 ͦ C, the process is accelerated several times and the seedlings can be seen already on the fifth or sixth day after sowing, and if the temperature is raised to 17-20 degrees, the seedlings will appear on the tenth day. If the temperature drops beyond +10 ͦ C, then the seedlings stop growing, instead they begin to turn yellow and rot.
Prolonged exposure to such a temperature entails irreversible pathological cellular changes in tissues, and if the minimum air temperature reaches + 3-4 degrees, then within three to four days the plants usually die. If the seeds are sown in frozen soil, then you will not see seedlings until it warms up properly.
When growing vegetables, it is enough to ensure that the thermal indicators of air and soil do not fall below and do not rise above the maximum permissible levels.
Initially, cucumber seedlings are able to grow well at daily rates of 25 ° С-28 ° С, but with the appearance of the first leaves, such a thermal regime begins to adversely affect plantings and requires a decrease to a level of 20 ° С-22 ° С.
With a sharp change in temperature, the bushes may die.
With a rapid decrease in degrees in a greenhouse, cucumbers cease to perceive the mineral elements necessary for them, and with a sharp increase in temperature, cucumber bushes begin to burn and as a result die.
In the evening, cucumber bushes feel comfortable in the first week after planting with average values of at least 17 ° C. This temperature index prevents excessive stem density and slows down unnecessary elongation of cucumber seedlings. However, after a week, such a degree begins to slow down them, and the plant needs to increase the heat level in the evening hours to the set 21 ° C-22 ° C.
When growing a vegetable crop, the temperature in the greenhouse for cucumbers should not go beyond the limit norms:
Sometimes, even when the temperature in the greenhouse for cucumbers differs from the required one by only 3 ° C, this turns into the inability of the cucumber seedlings to take root in the greenhouse. In the absence of automatic systems in the greenhouse that maintain the proper thermal regime, simple and effective measures are taken to change the microclimate.
Forming cucumbers in the greenhouse
The temperature in the greenhouse for cucumbers and tomatoes is very similar. Like cucumbers, tomatoes are a thermophilic culture, requiring the creation of a mild climate close to the Mediterranean.
The first condition is warmed up soil before planting seedlings in the greenhouse. Not lower than +15! Moreover, you should ask about the weather forecast in advance. It is better to keep the tomatoes in the room for a couple of days than doom them to extinction in cold conditions.
It is important that the soil is warmed up
After 8-10 days, tomatoes will be much better if the temperature rises to 20-25 degrees. The greens will get stronger and look healthy. But there is a danger in the rise in temperature.
At this initial stage, it must be reduced again in order to prevent a strong pulling of the bush, since all the strength will go to the leaves, and it is important to strengthen and develop the roots
Like cucumbers, tomatoes will not withstand a cold snap up to +5 degrees, a mark near zero will cause the death of the plant right there.
Important! Night temperature for tomatoes is about 18 degrees, daytime - more than 20. Experienced gardeners know that a lot depends on the selected variety of tomatoes.
There are hybrids that are not going to die with a short-term cold snap, even down to -3 degrees!
Experienced gardeners know that a lot depends on the selected tomato variety. There are hybrids that are not going to die in a short-term cold snap, even down to -3 degrees!
Daytime and nighttime temperature regulation in a tomato greenhouse is no different from caring for cucumbers in a greenhouse. But these two cultures should not live in one place.
In most cases, increased acidity adversely affects vegetable crops. On such a substrate, vegetables are often affected by various bacteria of various origins and cannot exist for a long time.
There are 4 groups that subdivide all vegetable plants into lovers of high acidity and, conversely, complete opponents:
It is important if liming is carried out - to artificially increase the alkalinity of the soil, then after the planted potatoes will soon acquire an unpleasant disease - scab. Therefore, it is not recommended to carry out special work to increase the pH level of the medium in certain areas where crops that do not accept an alkaline reaction should grow.
When growing cucumbers using a seedling method, the ripening of fruits can be accelerated by 10-15 days in comparison with the non-seedling method.
Potted cucumber seedlings are grown 20-25 days before planting in a greenhouse, greenhouse or warm living room.
Grown seedlings with 2-3 leaves are planted in the garden after the danger of frost has passed (June 5-15). It is planted in an ordinary way at a distance of 20 cm from each other with one plant in a pot.