The Mediterranean plant rosemary is not only a spice that enriches the taste of culinary dishes, but also beautifully flowering evergreen bushes that adorn a summer cottage or garden plot. How to properly grow this perennial in the open field, we will consider in this article.
It is possible to grow a bushy perennial, which feels great in Mediterranean climates (dry hot summers and wet cool winters), and in other climatic zones. The main thing is to do it right. The fragrant bush is very demanding on lighting and heat. And, although a plant that is more than three years old can tolerate frosts down to -15 degrees, it dies with a further decrease in temperature. In order for rosemary to please the eye for many years in a mixborder or in a green fence, a number of factors must be taken into account:
Planting a perennial in open ground is carried out using cuttings, layering, seeds - according to the standard scheme of 50x50 cm.This usually occurs in late spring after the end of frost, when it is warm enough - in early to mid-May. A perennial will feel good when, in moderately moist, loose soil, there will be: sand, deciduous-sod land and a little humus (1: 4: 2). Before planting it, it is necessary to moderately moisten the soil by placing cuttings, layering or seeds to a depth of 0.4 (for seeds) - 4 (for layering and cuttings) centimeters, sprinkling with loose soil. The place should be well lit.
The spicy bush does not require any special care, it is not susceptible to diseases, pests also bypass it (apparently because of the aroma). It must be watered regularly and moderately, but not overmoisten the soil. If the leaves begin to turn yellow, it means that there is not enough moisture. If the plant sheds leaves, it means, on the contrary, an excess of moisture.
By these signs, you can navigate how much water is required for irrigation. Weed and loosen, like any other flowers, rosemary is also necessary. Top dressing is optional, but to make it look beautiful, you can use a complex mineral and organic fertilizer containing phosphorus and nitrogen once a month. In the spring - watering with nitrogen fertilizers (they perfectly strengthen the root system), in the fall - with phosphorus.
Old bushes are rejuvenated every 7 years, cutting off in March-April to the level of the soil - this is how new beautiful shoots are formed. After the flowering of a young bush, you can additionally cut off shoots up to 3 cm (end of summer) to strengthen them during growth. A perennial wintering in a summer cottage or a personal plot in the Moscow region must be covered so that it does not die out. For this, cuttings of spruce branches, pointed at the ends, are stuck around the bushes at a slight angle, thus constructing a protective "tent". Additionally, cover with a layer of dry leaves. Some summer residents transplant rosemary in pots for the winter and transfer it to a cool and bright room (it is possible to store it in the basement, sprinkling the roots with earth, but sufficient lighting must be provided). At the same time, you should be aware that a plant grown in an open field is unlikely to survive and adapt to new conditions if it is transplanted into a pot as a permanent container culture.
Informational video with useful tips for gardeners.
Of the cuttings, the cultivation of a perennial is the most reliable, especially since an adult plant is easily cut by cuttings. Cut and place the cuttings in a vessel with water or in river sand, covering with a jar or cling film on top to ensure a comfortable microclimate. When the roots appear (after 3-5 weeks), the leaves are removed from the lower part of the cutting and planted in small containers (up to 10 cm in diameter), placing them in a warm, bright place. The plant can be sprayed to prevent the soil from drying out completely. Before planting, it will be useful to dip the root of the cutting into a solution with a rooting preparation.
In addition, the top of the sprouts must be pinned, which contributes to the development of a strong root system and branching. Interestingly, perennials can even be grown from cuttings bought at the supermarket. In this case, the top is used as a seasoning, and the main branch is planted in the ground, placing the container in a bright, warm place and watering it regularly. The growing branches are pinched.
The cultivation of a spicy bush and layering has proven itself well. To do this, you need to find the lower shoot of the plant, which can be bent to the ground, and dig it in. As soon as the tip of the shoot sprouts, carefully cut off the sprout from the main branch and, after carefully digging it out, transplant it into a separate container. It is important to know that cuttings and cuttings should not be planted immediately in a large container, since the soil that has not been mastered by the roots can sour, which is detrimental to the plant.
It is possible to grow a spicy perennial from seeds, which are easy to purchase at a flower shop. The seeds can be pre-soaked to speed up their riveting. They are sown in pots to a depth of 0.3-0.4 cm, lightly sprinkling with sand on top. The ground must always be slightly moistened - for this, the container is covered with foil or glass, thus creating a constant microclimate. In this case, the air temperature should be + 12 + 20 degrees. In about a month, seedlings will appear - they must be dived in a timely manner in a 6x6 cm container.
The soil composition for growing a plant should be loose and include: leafy, humus soil, coarse sand (2: 1: 2), peat should not be added. Of course, growing rosemary from seeds is a rather lengthy process, and it will take more than one year for it to turn into a large fluffy bushy bush.
In order for the cultivation of a spicy bush on the site to be successful, the following points must be remembered:
Don't be discouraged if you can't grow beautiful rosemary the first time. Just try again, taking into account all the tips in this material. I wish you success!
Video instruction for planting a plant from seeds.
The plant should be planted in late spring to avoid possible frost or early summer. Shrub propagation is allowed in any period, except for winter. In temperate climates, it is better to take shoots for seedlings in the spring before the grass begins to bloom and plant them in the soil in May - June. Autumn perennials are suitable for growing at home.
The Moscow region is distinguished by its continental moderate temperatures. Winter passes here rather mildly, without severe frosts. Summers are mostly humid with frequent rains. The highest temperature reaches 19 degrees. And under such weather you need to pick up a good seed. Before we analyze the question of how a tomato is planted in open ground in the Moscow region, we will consider the most interesting representatives for growing.
The cultivation of watermelons begins with the correct choice of varieties. For the Moscow region, early maturing varieties and hybrids of culture are chosen. Moreover, they must be relatively resistant to temperature extremes. The fruits of such varieties do not differ in large sizes, but in terms of other characteristics, watermelons differ little from their southern counterparts.
Among the popular early watermelons, there are hybrids near Moscow Charleston F1, Orange Medoc F1, Kai F1, Pink champagne F1 and varieties Ogonyok, Ultraranny, Crimson Sweet, Siberian lights, Sugar baby, Skorik.
Since rosemary is not a very demanding plant (except for the lack of frost resistance), planting and care is carried out in the open field - in the garden, in the country and in pots. With its help, a garden, balcony or terrace can be filled with a festive mood, suitable for the warm Mediterranean.
Watering rosemary is carried out in moderation. At home, the shrub can extract most of the moisture it needs from the air. The rest is provided by an extensive, deep root system. Only during the summer heat should you give the shrub a little more water.
It is necessary to inspect the shrub, if the leaves wither - there is a moisture deficit. Excess moisture is much more dangerous for this plant than lack of moisture.
Watering is carried out using the "once, but well" method - then they wait until the soil in the container is almost completely dry. Then water again abundantly so that the water begins to flow out through the drainage holes in the pot. After 15 minutes, drain the water from the pan.
If the plant grows in the ground, it is better not to use the "services" of rain. During rainstorms, it is best to cover the plant, for example, with a large plastic bottle. Why such measures are desirable can be read in the description of diseases and pests below.
Fertilize the rosemary in moderation. In the spring, it is necessary to provide the shrub with some nutrients, preferably organic (compost). In the summer, the shrubs do not need feeding. For the last time before winter, you can feed the plant in August. If the bush grows in a pot, it can be fed every 2-3 weeks with small doses of fertilizer.
Fertilizers with a high nitrogen content should be avoided. Fertilizer is suitable for flowering plants.
Rosemary is rarely subjected to this operation. In the fall or spring, pruning of rosemary is carried out, which allows the shrub to release new shoots. You need to prune carefully so as not to cut the old shoots. The secateurs must be clean and sharp.
After flowering, the plant is cut by 1/3.
There are specially bred rosemary varieties that are resistant to low temperatures: Veitshöchheimer Rosmarin, Blue Winter, Madeleines Hill.
Rosemary is resistant to short-term frosts down to -15 ° C.
It is possible to grow rosemary in open (unprotected) ground in the suburbs of Moscow and the Leningrad region only near the southern walls and under cover in winter. However, the plant often freezes out. In our climatic conditions, temperature drops are observed, so the Mediterranean shrub may not survive the winter.
In unfavorable climates, it is safer to plant rosemary in pots. After the spring frosts, he can calmly decorate the garden until the autumn cold weather. The plant can remain outside until the temperature drops below freezing during the day. Light frosts at night should not harm the shrub.
In the rest of the period, it is necessary to provide the plant with wintering conditions.
Watering is the most difficult art of wintering, it often happens that it is because of this that the rosemary does not survive.
Photo. Rosemary on the balcony and in the room in winter at rest.
Activities for planting and caring for kerries in the middle lane are carried out in the same way in all regions. However, the cultivation of shrubs in the Moscow region or in the Leningrad region requires special conditions. It is covered from freezing in late autumn in dry weather so that the shoots are slightly pressed to the ground. Styrofoam is pre-laid around the bush. From above, the plant is carefully covered with spruce branches or dry leaves. To prevent the spruce branches from straightening, a kind of frame is installed above the bush. This self-constructed shelter should be well ventilated.
As soon as early spring sets in, in dry, cloudy weather, kerrias are carefully freed from shelter. First of all, the frame is removed, and then the leaves are removed. To prevent shoots from getting burns from direct sunlight, they are protected with any covering material. This will save the plant from death. Sometimes in such cases, the burnt shoots can be cut off, only the flowering is likely to be disturbed.
The main care in the open field is reduced to moderate watering, in loosening the soil and controlling weeds. Do not forget about the formation of a bush in March-April, and if necessary, then rejuvenation (this applies to those plants that are already 7-8 years old).
Also, during the active growing season (from spring to autumn), feed the plant with complex mineral fertilizers twice a month. Do not forget about nitrogen fertilizers in the spring, and phosphorus fertilizers in the fall.
Rosemary will delight you with its blooming in April-May.
Since at a temperature of -10 ... -12 degrees the ground part of the rosemary freezes, it is best to locate the plant for the winter in a room in which the average temperature does not drop below +16 degrees.
If, during wintering, the temperature in the room is kept within + 10 ... + 12 degrees, then in spring the rosemary will bloom. If the rosemary hibernates at a higher temperature, then most likely it will not bloom.
Rosemary prefers south or southwest windows. It should be turned every 2 days so that the crown develops evenly. In winter, it is necessary to supplement the lighting with lamps for 7-8 hours a day.
Rosemary looks great in bansai.
Will rosemary grow in our apartments and gardens?
I want to share with the readers the experience of growing rosemary - a wonderful spicy and fragrant plant.
My Romarina bushes are grown in two ways - from cuttings and from seeds. A bush grown from a cutting has been growing with me for about 7 years.
Once they gave me a small stalk, which I planted in a light earth, and put the pot in a plastic bag - it turned out to be a small greenhouse. From time to time I opened the bag, aired it, sprayed it and closed it again.
Two months passed, and once, examining the pot, I noticed that the roots had already appeared from the large holes in the bottom - the stalk had taken root! For some time it still remained in the planting pot, and in the spring I transplanted it into a larger container. And my rosemary started to grow.
Rosemary is a highly branching shrub. Its shoots are densely covered with needle-like leaves. Rosemary blooms with small blue flowers.
Rosemary grows quite quickly, does not require special attention. He does not like excessive moisture I water him when the soil in the pot becomes completely dry, but I spray it periodically. I feed along with all the flowers with a complex fertilizer.
All my houseplants spend the summer on the loggia - there is a lot of light and warmth and a special microclimate is created in which flowers grow very well. And rosemary is also comfortable here.
In winter, a cooler room is desirable for rosemary, but it grows in my apartment, where it is very warm. True, at the slightest opportunity - as soon as it gets a little warmer outside the window - I put it on the loggia. It stays there even when the temperature drops to 0-5 ° C.
I cut my rosemary regularly - I use spicy twigs for cooking meat and fish dishes.
The year before last, I bought rosemary seeds and sowed them in March. They rose rather quickly, and small seedlings began to grow. By summer, they were already from 5 to 7 cm - there were 6 seedlings in total. I gave almost all of them to my friends, and left one bush for myself.
This spring I took him to the garden and dropped him out of the pot on an alpine hill. Over the summer, my rosemary has grown into a luxurious bush.
In the fall, she dug it up, transplanted it into a pot and brought it home.
Interestingly, these two rosemary have a completely different shape: grown from a cuttings, it forms flexible, curved shoots, and since I constantly trim it, it has acquired the form of a ball. Most likely, it is a sprawling rosemary.
Grown from seeds from the very beginning it had a pyramidal shape and now it looks like a young cypress - it is a medicinal rosemary.
But both of them have an incomparable rosemary, slightly spicy and reminiscent of the scent of conifers.
Grow this beautifully scented plant at home and in the garden!