One of the secrets to successfully growing indoor flowers is proper watering. Novice amateur flower growers, unknowingly, can reduce their efforts to nothing, if they either overdo it with watering, or, on the contrary, do not add water. Therefore, nevertheless, having decided to acquire indoor plants, it will not be superfluous to read a couple of articles on the proper care for them. After all, it depends on the correct watering of plants whether the plants will please the eye or die from improper care.
Abundant watering necessary for plants in cases where:
Moderate watering necessary in cases:
Signs of abundant watering are:
Signs of insufficient watering are:
There are many ways to determine whether a plant should be watered or not. But the most effective are:
It is recommended to water the plants more often and in moderation, preferably in the morning. The plants are watered until the excess pours out on the pallet. It is best to check the soil moisture level every three days.
The key to lush greenery and abundant flowering of indoor plants is often correct watering. It would seem that it can be difficult here - water yourself so that the earth does not dry out. But no, there are rules in this matter that must be followed. The water requirement of plants depends on many factors that some are unaware of. For example, the location of the plant, the temperature in the room, the size of the container, the season, and last but not least, the origin of the plant and even the land.
The same plant in different conditions and at different times of the year requires different amounts of water. So, at low temperatures, in the dark or during a rest period, the loss of water by evaporation decreases. During such periods, the plant consumes less water. And quite the opposite happens during the period of active growth: the plants need much more moisture than during the dormant period.
The type and size of the flower pot will also affect the frequency of watering. A plant in a plastic pot requires less water than a plant in a porous clay pot of the same size. The larger the pot in relation to the size of the plant, the less often you need to water, since a small plant is not able to consume all the moisture in a large pot. Conversely, the smaller the pot, the faster the soil dries out in it, and, therefore, the more often you need to water the plant in it. Therefore, it is advisable to plant plants in containers that proportionally correspond to the root system.
The composition of the soil also affects the need for moisture. So, a mixture with sand retains moisture less than sod land.
No one likes the feeling of wet feet - neither people nor plants. If our wet and cold feet inevitably lead to colds, then the roots of plants begin to rot. There is no life without roots - sooner or later, unfortunately, the plant will die. But this can be avoided.
Before watering, you should check the condition of the soil for moisture. The rule is: if the ground is wet, you shouldn't water the plant. On the other hand, some plants, such as chlorophytum, need abundant watering, in which the substrate must never dry out. To provide plants with optimal care, check it every couple of days by immersing the phalanx of the index finger in the substrate, and thus determining the degree of moisture.
Florists are thinking about which method of watering is better: top, bottom or immersion method. It is said that underfilling is better than overfilling. Although both lack of moisture and its excess are detrimental to plants.
To avoid overflow, many growers water their plants from below, that is, pour water into a tray that sits under the flower pot. With such watering, water is absorbed into the earthen lump through the drainage holes. If the earthy ball gets wet and the surface of the soil in the pot darkens, watering is complete. Then the excess water is poured out of the pan.
The positive effect of this irrigation method is that it provides good air humidification. The disadvantage of this method may be that the water, evaporating, raises mineral substances to the soil surface, as a result of which soil salinization occurs. Therefore, periodically water the plants from above to wash out these substances.
Such watering is acceptable for plants that do not like when water gets on their leaves - these are Saintpaulias cyclamens, gloxinia, monstera.
The next method to avoid overflow is to immerse the plant in a container of water. To do this, a pot with a plant is immersed in a wide container with water so that the water reaches the ground level. When the substrate in the pot is completely saturated with water, the pot should be removed, allowed to drain off excess water and put the plant in its original place.
This irrigation method is good for all epiphytic plants (orchids, mosses), as well as succulents (cacti, Christmas trees, aloe, etc.).
In specialized flower shops, sprinklers for indoor plants made of clay or other similar materials are sold, which fulfill not only a functional, but also a decorative role, being a decoration for your flower. Thanks to this, the plants receive as much water as they need. You just need to insert the sprinkler into the soil and fill it with water. After that, water will gradually penetrate into the soil through the hole from below. The plant receives the required amount of water, and the "overflowed" plants are a thing of the past.
As practice shows, in plants that consume a large amount of water, such watering often leads not to "wet feet", but to drying out. Therefore, you need to ensure that the sprinkler is always filled with water.
To the question: "What water do you most often use to water your plants?" many will answer: "Of course, tap /". But, unfortunately, it is the water drawn from the tap that contains harmful substances that are used for disinfection. Therefore, all growers know that water should be poured into a container and allowed to stand for a day. When standing, it heats up to room temperature, which is also important, since when watering with cold water, the plants will receive a shock.
As for boiled water, even experts have disputes about this. Some advise it, as it becomes softer as a result of boiling. Others say that there is no harm from it, but there will be no benefit either. Still others are categorically against, justifying this by the fact that boiled water does not have dissolved air, which is so necessary for plants.
Some flower lovers water their plants with chilled water left over from cooking potatoes, pasta, eggs, or rice, arguing that this water contains the nutrients that plants need. On the other hand, the water after boiling eggs contains calcium, which is not liked by plants that prefer an acidic environment. These are, for example, azaleas, orchids, hydrangeas.
While morning or evening watering is preferred for garden plants, there is no strict rule for indoor plants. Nevertheless, flower growers recommend watering indoor plants in the fall and winter in the morning to protect their green favorites from hypothermia, and in the summer in the evening, when the heat subsides and moisture does not evaporate so quickly.
Translation: Lesya V.
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Illumination... The brighter the light (according to the needs of a given plant, without going beyond the adaptive boundaries), the more intense the photosynthesis and the higher the growth rate, the higher the plant's need for moisture. Consequently, the clod dries out faster and the frequency of watering increases. If the plant does not have enough light, it stops growing, the need for water decreases, and it will have to be watered less often.
Ambient temperature... The warmer, the more intensively all life processes of the plant proceed, the higher the need for water. However, with the onset of heat, at temperatures above +28 ° C, in many plants growth may stop, the need for moisture may also decrease. As the temperature drops below the optimum, the metabolic rate and intensity decrease, and with this the need for water - accordingly, fewer irrigations are required. At soil temperatures below + 10 ° C, the roots of many indoor plants are practically unable to consume water.
Composition and volume of soil... The larger the volume of the soil and the lower its porosity, the longer it will dry out. It is very important to plant the plant in the optimal soil suited to the needs of the particular plant and to give no more volume than is necessary for normal growth. Only under such conditions will it be possible to choose the correct irrigation regime. If the earthen ball much exceeds the volume of the roots and the soil is very dense, this often leads to stagnant water and waterlogging.
Air humidity... The drier the air, the more the plant loses moisture through the leaves, the more it needs root moisture. In an atmosphere of humid air, evaporation is reduced.
Air exchange... With a strong air current, the leaves evaporate more moisture, and the need for watering increases.
Plant condition... If the plant is in a resting state, its need for water decreases. Before the dormant period, it is necessary to gradually reduce watering, and when leaving it, gradually increase it. In case of disease (especially roots), the plant consumes less moisture.
These factors are very mobile, they can change not only from season to season, but literally within a few days, so it is necessary to be observant.
In order not to be mistaken with the frequency of watering, you should focus on the condition of the soil, the degree of its moisture.
The amount of watering depends on the same factors. It is advisable to add the minimum amount of water that will maintain the desired moisture content of the substrate and will not lead to overdrying and loss of turgor by the leaves. Excess water that has leaked into the sump after watering must be drained 15-30 minutes after watering. Poor and frequent watering is dangerous, when the water does not reach all the roots - this can lead to the drying out of the coma inside the pot and dehydration of the plant.
No less it is important to provide air access to the roots of the plant... If watering is so frequent and abundant that the pores of the soil are almost constantly filled with water, then the roots, in the absence of air, will not be able to absorb water, and very favorable conditions are created for root decay. Plants tolerate slight overdrying much easier than regular waterlogging.
When purchasing a plant, be sure to pay attention to its water needs at different periods of the annual cycle. It is useful to read about the natural conditions of its growth in order to understand how moist the soil should be kept.... The plant is watered as needed, not just regularly. It itself will tell you the watering time, absorbing water by the roots and draining the soil to a certain extent.
Plants that require constant moisture should be watered frequently and abundantly, leaving the water in the pan. There are few such plants; they include marsh inhabitants adapted to live in stagnant waters - for example, cyperus, the mangrove plant brugieru (see Mangroves grow in your home).
Plants that require moderately moist soil and do not tolerate overdrying should be watered immediately after the top layer of the soil dries. This group includes many indoor plants - most palms, aroids, ferns, myrtle, azaleas, hibiscus, etc. Regular and moderate overhead watering will keep the clod always slightly moist. For such plants, you can use self-watering pots.
Plants that prefer partially or completely drying out soil are rarely watered, but abundantly, so that the water reaches all the roots, and the plants can replenish their water reserves. These include cacti and succulent plants, dracaena, yucca, nolina, zamiokulkas, many types of orchids. Depending on the stage of growth and time of year, they may require varying degrees of drying of the substrate, from a few centimeters from the top to the very bottom. It is not recommended to use self-watering pots for such plants.
To water properly, you need to correctly assess the degree of drying of the soil. The easiest way is to try its surface with your hand and how deep it will turn out. This method is suitable for plants in which only the top layer can dry out. In plants in small pots, the degree of moisture can be easily estimated by weight by lifting the pot - dried soil is much lighter than wet soil. For control, at first, you can gently remove a lump from the pot without violating its integrity. For large plants that require thorough drying of the soil, it is convenient to use wooden sticks, piercing a lump with them to the bottom of the pot.There are also special devices on sale for determining the degree of soil moisture.
Temperature water for irrigation should be approximately equal to the room temperature or 2-5 degrees warmer, but not higher than +30 ° C. Watering with too cold water is a great stress for the plant, it can serve as a signal for the onset of unfavorable conditions and cause leaves to drop. Sometimes you can observe the loss of turgor by the leaves and with a damp coma, as a result of hypothermia in the coma, when the roots are not able to absorb cold water.
Plants that are dormant in cool conditions are watered with cool water so as not to cause their early awakening.
Watering with hot water is sometimes practiced to stimulate flowering. But this is also too much stress for the plants, which can result in their death.
Water quality - not less important factor of plant health. Drinking tap water is fine for watering most plants. For species especially sensitive to calcium salts, watering with boiled water can be recommended. The water is boiled for several minutes, allowed to cool in the kettle and carefully drained from the sediment (calcium salts partially fall to the bottom during boiling). You can use clean rain or melt water. You should not use bottled table water for irrigation - it often has a high content of salts, which are useful for humans, but harmful to plants. It is necessary to treat water from wells and wells with care, it is advisable to first make its chemical analysis.
Tap water must be defended to free it from chlorine. Carbon filters can be used to remove chlorine from water. The use of ion-exchange filters is not recommended, since the water is saturated with sodium ions that are harmful to plants. Boiling also removes chlorine from the water. For irrigation, you can use replaceable water from aquariums - it is warm, settled and enriched with fish waste products, which are good organic fertilizers.
Water the plants correctly on top of the soil... Plants in nature receive water with precipitation. With overhead irrigation, the water evenly wets the soil, dropping down under the action of gravity to the absorbent hairs of the roots, carrying dissolved salts with it. When watering from above, it is easier to assess the degree of soil moisture, while watering from below can lead to waterlogging of the lower roots and drying out of the upper ones.
There are a number of plants that have very water-sensitive growth points, tubers or leaves and are often recommended to be watered from a pan. But even these plants should be carefully shed from above every few waterings. Bottom watering is acceptable for plants planted in small pots, for which watering from above is difficult, for example, miniature Saintpaulias. For such plants, special irrigation mats are often used.
When watering, distribute the water evenly over the entire surface of the earthen clod, do not pour in one place. It is undesirable to wet the trunk or base of the plant, get on the leaves.
Determining watering time by tapping the pot is pointless. Measuring water loss by weight requires a lot of skill. best The best way to determine when to water at the same time and the easiest. Inspect the surface in winter - soil once a week, in the middle of summer - whenever possible. If the soil surface also resembles dry dust, water the plant. Immerse your index finger in the soil to the depth of the nail. If the tip remains dry, then the plant needs to be watered. The most important exception to this is cacti - rules and other succulents in the winter, the room is cool and the plants don't wither - leave them in How.
Among the advantages of wick irrigation are the following:
Complete system with hoses, tubes, etc. delivers water from the main source to all connected plants. Its dimensions can be changed depending on the need. Schematically, it can be represented as follows:
A regulator is used for connection. He controls the feed. Irrigation of the soil takes place in a timely manner.
There are 3 types of connection:
In specialized stores there are ready-made automatic irrigation systems, for example, Hozelock. They can be used in growing both indoor plants in pots (2 pcs.) And in garden plots with an area of 9 sq. M.
Attention! Mini equipment from AquaDeco has been developed for domestic plants. These small balls are filled with water and placed in the soil to the level indicated on it. The ball releases the required amount of liquid into the soil.
Automatic irrigation systems are very diverse.
It is widely known among flower growers.
They are popularly called smart pots. Works on the principle of molecular motion. The system has a reservoir from which water itself flows into the root system.
The root system absorbs liquid on its own
Attention! The smart pot independently controls the soil moisture thanks to the indicator. Fits perfectly into the interior of any home.
Organizing drip irrigation for your favorite indoor plants with your own hands is not so difficult. A flower lover can try to make a watering system on his own, or he can purchase all the necessary accessories in specialized stores.