All gardeners know that hybrid seedstomato
are very expensive, especially from well-known manufacturers. It is no secret that such tomato plants are more productive than varietal ones.
But, I think, any gardener will agree that tomatoes of varietal tomatoes are more tasty, and not hybrid ones. Therefore, both varieties and hybrids are usually grown on the site. For example, I am planting several hybrid tomato plants in my greenhouse. Their fruits are mainly used for canning. I give preference to cocktail tomatoes for the size of their fruits - they are not large, but not small, almost all fruits in the brush ripen at the same time. Their peel is dense, even if you do not pick them off in time, they do not crack, and can hang for a long time. And most importantly, they are easy to preserve.
Cocktail tomatoes are growing in mygreenhouse (made of cellular polycarbonate)
before frost - I do not limit their growth, like all other tomato plants in the second half of July. I noticed that these tomatoes do well in cool weather, both in spring and autumn. So this year, at the beginning of October, red tomatoes are still hanging in our greenhouse.
The plants of cocktail tomatoes have one drawback - they give many stepchildren, so they need to be monitored constantly, removing stepchildren in time, otherwise a continuous forest grows. I leave my stepchildren only on the top of the plants in early September, in order to get cuttings later for winter storage.
I keep the planting stock of these hybrid tomatoes at home during the winter. The tomato plant is a liana, it can grow indefinitely, so I harvest cuttings (the top of the plant and stepsons) in the fall before frost, unless, of course, the plants are affected by late blight, by the way, cocktail tomatoes are resistant to it. The infinitely expensive seeds of hybrids with a very low germination rate prompted me to this method of preserving planting material. For example, in 2013 I bought seeds of hybrid cocktail tomatoes for 100 rubles - there were five seeds in the package - and none of them came up. I think that many gardeners, and especially pensioners, cannot afford such a luxury, so the tomato hybrid you like can be preserved in winter. It doesn't take much effort. In addition, in early spring, the preserved cuttings can also be propagated. At first it was an experiment, it justified itself and now it has entered my practice.
How do I do it? In late September or early October, before frost, I cut my stepchildren and the tops of tomato plants for winter storage. Such a cutting should have 3-4 leaves (they are small) and a stem 10-15 cm long. I try to cut those cuttings with a thicker stem, they winter better. In addition, in the process of their growth during winter storage, the stem becomes thinner. If there are flowers on the stem, I cut them. Tomatoes on them, of course, will appear and even ripen, but they will take away the strength from the cuttings. If you have a place on the windowsill, then you can try to cut more flowering cuttings, and then by the New Year, according to my method (in water), grow several dozen small red tomatoes.
I bring the cuttings home to a city apartment and put them in a glass jar with a wide neck in the brightest place on the windowsill. On each can I write the name of the hybrid. You cannot put many cuttings in the jar, they will be cramped, and they will fall out. Therefore, the cuttings in the jar should be spacious - I put no more than 5-6 pieces. It is better if they do not touch each other. 7-10 cm of the stem should be immersed in the water.
After some time, roots will appear on the submerged stems, the stem will grow upward and become thinner. This is why it is best to cut thick-stemmed cuttings. The distance between leaves on the stem during growth will increase due to lack of lighting. I don’t plant these cuttings in the ground, otherwise they will start growing, and on the street there is already a short daylight hours, and many cuttings in pots cannot be placed on the windowsill.
In the first half of November, I cut off the upper part of each rooted cutting (approximately 15 cm) and put it back in boiled cold water, after washing the jar. I discard the lower part of the plant with roots. Cutting cuttings is best on the day of the fetus according to the lunar sowing calendar. From that moment on, I put the cuttings on the seedling rack and begin to illuminate with fluorescent lamps for 12-14 hours. November-December is the most unfavorable time for plants due to the short daylight hours, and in many indoor plants, life processes freeze during this period. In addition, if you leave the cuttings on the windowsill, they will be cold from the windows (I do not glue them for the winter, because the apartment is very warm, and sometimes even hot).
In mid-December, I shorten the cuttings again, cutting off the rooted part, and change the water. Cuttings from lack of sunlight turn light green, but this is not scary.
After January 15, I plant several of the thinnest cuttings with small roots in small pots with soil so that they do not die after the next pruning, and continue to light up. But you can not do this, because the number of cuttings I had prepared with a margin.
Once in the soil, these cuttings begin to grow, their stem thickens, and the leaves become darker. As soon as they grow up, I cut cuttings from them, root them in the same water, and the lower part of the plant gives birth to stepchildren and continues to grow. Then I also let these stepchildren to breed.
On a tomato that grows in a pot, I leave one stepson - it will be a continuation of the plant, which I later transplant into a deep pot at least 14 cm high and 11.5 cm in diameter at the top of the pot. Moreover, when transplanting, I remove its lower leaves and deepen the stem to the lower left leaf in order to build up a good root system. This plant will be a safety plant if suddenly, when planting seedlings in a greenhouse, the tomatoes die due to recurrent frosts. It is possible not to do this if there are enough preserved cuttings.
For the cuttings remaining on the rack, I cut the roots for the last time in early February, leaving their lower part longer, and for the last time I root in water. After the roots appear on the cuttings, this will be in the second half of February, I plant them in small pots or milk boxes, also removing 2-3 lower leaves and deepening the stem into the ground. As a result, most of the stem will grow a powerful root system. When planting, the roots should not be overgrown, no more than one centimeter long. With such small roots, the plant takes root better. Having finally hit the ground, the tomato plant begins to quickly grow its root system. I remove the emerging flowers. Until the end of February, these plants will still be on the backlit rack.
I prepare the land for all my seedlings in the fall. It is a mixture of sifted cucumber soil with sifted compost. In the spring I add a little to itcoconut substrate
, vermicompost and a pinch of fertilizerAVA
(powder). I fill the pots with this mixture. In each of them I put the drug Glyocladin - one tablet in the center of the pot with earth: no smaller than one centimeter from the top of the pot. This is a new drug that has proven itself very well. It suppresses the pathogenic microflora, releasing the beneficial one. After planting the plant, I sprinkle 10-13 HB-101 peas on top of the ground.
At the end of February, I expose the seedlings in pots on the windowsill. I attach foil behind the plants to make them lighter from the reflected light. After a week, the leaves darken and acquire a color similar to that of sown seedlings of other varieties and newly acquired hybrids. As soon as the seedlings grow up, I remove the lower leaves and transplant it into a pot of a larger diameter and deep, covering the stem with soil to the remaining leaves in order to build up a good root system.
I take care of the same as for ordinary seedlings. I feed the seedlings once a week with the Ideal fertilizer (2 caps per liter of water), alternating feeding with a solution of HB-101 (2 drops per liter of water) and a solutionExtrasola
At the beginning of March, I take out these seedlings on a glazed (but not insulated) balcony for hardening, as soon as the temperature there is at least + 8 ° C. How I temper tomato and cucumber seedlings, I will write in the next article.
I planted these hardened seedlings in a greenhouse on April 14, covering them with white dense spunbond. The plants already had the first flower brushes. She survived five recurrent frosts, in the most extreme of them the temperature dropped to -5 ° C. I want to say right away that the yield of plants obtained during the winter storage of cuttings did not decrease - they thanked them with an excellent harvest, delighting them with fruits ripened on the vine until early October and even later.
I think this method will be appreciated by pensioners who count every penny.
Thanks to the winter method of storing cuttings of hybrid tomatoes, there is no need to buy expensive seeds, sow them again and wait: they will rise or not. Winter care for cuttings does not cause any particular problems: you need to wash the jars several times, change the water there and cut off the grown cuttings. And then plant them in a timely manner in pots with nutritious soil. By the way, in the same way you can make perennial and indoor tomatoes intended for growing on the windowsill. As a rule, these are undersized plants with small fruits.
Olga Rubtsova, gardener,
PhD in Geography
Photo by the author
After the end of fruiting and harvesting, it is necessary to prepare the grapes for winter. This is a rather laborious process that requires a careful approach. The harvest of the next year and the safety of the bushes depend on this.
Usually grapes are covered for the winter in the second half of October or at the beginning of November, before the onset of constant frosts. In more northern areas, this can be done in early October.
For proper covering, the grape bushes are bent to the ground. This must be done especially carefully so as not to damage them and to avoid various damages to the bark. From above, the bushes are covered with either organic materials - leaves, sawdust, raspberry shoots, pine needles, or earth. In addition, building materials, such as roofing felt, can also be used to cover grapes.
Also, grapes can be laid in dug trenches. And sprinkle on top with leaves of fruit trees, reed branches and synthetic film. In winter, covered grape bushes are covered with abundant snow to prevent them from freezing.
In the spring, with the onset of warm weather, the grape bushes open a little. To do this, remove the top layer, consisting of a synthetic film or roofing material. Thus, the grapes will not rot and will begin to develop correctly. Ongoing night frosts prevent it from opening completely. The grapes are completely opened when the air temperature reaches plus 10 degrees.
Remember that sheltering the vine for the winter is one of the most important issues in growing this crop.
To propagate the plant in the fall, it is necessary to prepare healthy shrubs that are 2 to 4 years old. The flower grower cuts cuttings at a height of 20-30 cm from the ground. New root systems form lateral stems faster, which grow in spring after careful pruning of the bush. You should not take shoots from the top of clematis, because no matter when they are pruned in spring or autumn, the end result is the same - poor rooting. Single-node cuttings acclimatize better.
Planting a new flower by layering is done in several stages:
The most important condition for a high-quality and successful fusion of the rootstock and scion is their botanical relationship (in other words, like is grafted on like).
According to the degree of this relationship, they are distinguished:
The most important condition for a high-quality and successful fusion of the rootstock and scion is their botanical relationship.
Many years of vaccination experience has revealed the following interdependence:
True, our curious gardeners do not get tired of experimenting - the facts are haunted by the fact that in Bulgaria currants are grafted onto cherries, and a neighbor has apples and pears on the same tree.
If all this seems terribly difficult to you, you can simply select the already grafted seedlings of fruit crops in our catalog, which includes the offer of several large garden online stores. Choose seedlings of fruit trees.
And if you are determined to try your hand at vaccination, practical practical advice will certainly come in handy.
Gardeners who are grafting trees disagree on when it is best to harvest cuttings - in the fall or spring season. Let's face it - both seasons are suitable, but if the scion has not been prepared since autumn, then there is still spring. In order for the harvesting of apple tree cuttings for grafting in spring to be successful, you need to know the features of cutting them during this period of the code, when to do it, how and where to store them later, what should be a suitable grafting material when it needs to be grafted and a lot of other little things. For without observing the rules for harvesting scion and storing it, it is unlikely that the apple tree will be successful.
Chaenomeles is usually grown for amazing blooms. In the spring it seems that the bush is engulfed in flames, there are so many bright red or orange flowers on its branches! In a number of valuable garden forms and hybrids, flowers can be pinkish, creamy pink and even white. They are large, about 3.5 cm in diameter. Simple, semi-double or double. Flowering lasts from three weeks to a month.
Many amateur flower growers grow Henomeles Maulea, or Japanese quince low... This is exactly that wonderful thorny shrub that is no higher than one meter. It has a branched crown and brownish-red flowers.
Interesting varieties beautiful quince... On sale are more often interspecific hybrids of chaenomeles, which have not only salmon-red or red-orange flowers, but also white ones.
I plan to plant varietal henomeles excellent, which in the second half of May is buried in a gentle cloud of greenish-cream terry roses. They are sterile, so the shrub does not bear fruit.
In early spring, colored buds are clearly visible, similar to tiny fists. It happens that a plant is in a hurry and, without waiting for spring, dissolves single flowers at the end of a long autumn.
I once gave a neighbor one of the most beautifully flowering Japanese quince bushes, as it was necessary to free up space for a greenhouse. In the new place, chaenomeles almost did not bloom: it clearly lacked light and pollinating plants.
Flaming chaenomeles bush
The phrase "own-rooted grapes" means that the crop is propagated by cuttings, without using grafting. Let's figure out how to prepare such cuttings and how best to preserve them in winter.
Cut the vine for cuttings, it should be in the fall, when the wood ripens well. Under the same conditions, it dries out more slowly than poorly ripened. The diameter of the vine should be at least 5 mm, the length - 1-1.2 m. It is more convenient to work with it, and it is stored better. It is also necessary to look for healthy, intact buds on the vines.
Harvested cuttings tied in bundles, be sure to hang up a label (do not rely on memory, you can easily confuse it) and put it in storage. In order to prevent the cuttings from becoming moldy during the winter, they can be dipped in a 2-3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or another drug that has a similar effect.
It should not be forgotten that a grape cut is a living organism that contains carbohydrates (sugar and starch). These substances are consumed during respiration, and we need to save them for the formation of roots and shoots. Therefore, it is necessary to create optimal conditions for storing the vine so that the loss of carbohydrates is minimal at all times. You also need to make sure that the vine does not lose moisture.
Regardless of the grape variety temperature should be in the range from –1 to + 2 ° C, the humidity of the air and the substrate in which the cuttings are located is about 85%. Such conditions can be created in pits, basements and refrigerators (if there are few cuttings).
In the first case, a site is chosen with a light-textured soil, a good drain for melt and rainwater. Dig a hole (trench), bunches of cuttings can be laid in it in several layers. Top covered with light soil with a layer of 20-30 cm. It is not necessary to use a film or roofing material for covering.
For storage in the basement, the cuttings are laid so that they are surrounded on all sides by sand, sawdust, moss or peat. It is necessary to ensure that this material is constantly wet.
Store a small number of cuttings in the refrigerator. The bundle is wrapped in a damp cotton cloth and placed in a loosely tied plastic bag. Store on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, periodically controlling the moisture content of the fabric and cuttings.
In the spring, 2-3 weeks before planting, cuttings are taken out of storage. First of all, their freshness is checked. To do this, make a new cross section and press on it with the blunt end of the secateurs. A few drops of liquid will appear on well-preserved cuttings. If moisture oozes out without pressure, the stalk is rotten, and if you cannot squeeze out a drop, it is dry. Also look at the color of the cross section. It should be light green, without any black blotches. Well-preserved cuttings are soaked in water at room temperature for 1-2 days, dried up - up to 5-7 days.
It often happens that during storage the cuttings mold, get wet or dry outand it's hard to tell if they have live kidneys. In this case, stratification helps. This operation is carried out with cuttings, the storage conditions of which are unknown. They do it like this: the vines are covered with a moisture-retaining material and left in a warm (up to 20-25 ° C) and bright room. After 10-15 days, when the bulk of the buds have blossomed, the best cuttings are selected and planted in the nursery.