Indoor plants in winter


Winter is a time of rest and sleep for nature. And only indoor plants please with their colors and return to summer. But in order for pets to please their owners on winter days, you need to know the conditions for caring for plants at this time of year.

Caring for indoor plants in winter

In winter, many plants enter a dormant state. All processes slow down, growth stops, some flowers throw off their leaves. But there are some plants that continue to bloom in the winter. In any case, caring for plants in winter is different from summer and spring.

For plants that are at rest, as well as for deciduous flowers in winter, you only need a cool room with an acceptable temperature, rare watering. All other indoor flowers are more difficult to care for.

A novice florist should be wary of watering or feeding flowers. In his opinion, the plant is awake, but in fact it is dormant, and excessive care for it harms the flowers.

Most often cacti suffer from this. Due to the fact that cacti are representatives of arid and hot regions, they try to locate them in the warmest place in the room in winter and provide abundant watering - this is not correct. The cactus will not die from such care, but it will not delight you with its amazing flowers. For good flowering, the plant needs a dry and cool room.

Novice growers and indoor plant lovers should remember that pity can lead to the death of flowers. You will not be comfortable and pleasant if they wake you up at night and wrap you up or start feeding the sleepy one.

The cactus family and some other plant species do not like over-watering in the winter, but there are some flowers and plants that need regular watering during the cold season. For example, conifers can die due to one overdrying of the soil. In order not to ruin your indoor flower garden, you should always carefully read the instructions attached to the purchase of the plant.

It is also important to remember that you need to water the flowers in winter with water at room temperature or a couple of degrees warmer. It is imperative to drain the leaked water from the pallet.

When buying and delivering flowers, plants in winter, you need to use only warm delivery. This is due to the abundant watering of the soil in the store, which, with normal delivery, can immediately bring to the freezing of the soil and the death of the root system. We will consider the issue of transportation in more detail at the end.

Not only proper watering is an important prerequisite for caring for home flowers in winter. The plant also needs light. Tropical inhabitants suffer greatly from the lack of light in winter.

If you notice bright and prominent streaks on the leaves, yellowness, then these are signs of chlorosis, which plants are susceptible to in winter. Citrus fruits and gardenias are more susceptible to this disease. Such plants should be placed as close to the window as possible and sprayed for prophylaxis with preparations containing iron, you can also periodically add Ferovit or Hilat iron to the water.

One of the biggest winter problems for flowers is humidity. When the heating works, and outside the window the temperature drops down, then the humidity content in the room is greatly reduced. Some plants can adapt to dry air, but most flowers need moisture. Flowers in dry and warm rooms need periodic spraying. Particular attention should be paid to this issue in offices, child care facilities and retail outlets.

In the article "What to do right after buying a plant" has already been written about flowers bought in winter, so we will not talk about such plants today, they were artificially forced to stay awake. Also, we will not talk about flowers that are naturally active in winter. Let's talk about those that can grow and develop themselves, but subject to the rules of care.

Ficus Benjamin, chlorophytum, royal begonia, amaranth, aglonema, cissus and philodendron - care for these plants in winter is the same as in summer, only humidity, temperature, artificial lighting must be constantly maintained at the same desired level. The Decembrist and Cyclamen blooming in winter need supplementation with minerals.

Each plant is divided into groups according to certain requirements for caring for them. Consider these plants and groups.

Lovers of low temperatures
Fuchsia, hydrangea, homemade pomegranate, many types of cactus, and all citrus fruits as well as pelargonium.

Moderate temperature lovers
Oleander, asparagus, cyclamen, decembrist, fatsia, sansevieria, agave.

Lovers of warmth
Almost all bromeliads, orchids, coffee and chefleurs.

Adaptable to all conditions and temperatures
Afelandra, ivy, tradescantia, cordilina, aloe, clivia, chlorophytum.

Of course, this list is conditional and far from complete. When buying each plant, a care description is attached, you must not forget to read it, and then the indoor flowers will feel comfortable in the winter cold.

How to bring flowers home safely in frost and cold

If you have your own transport, the risk that the plant will freeze is minimized. In the absence of personal transport or the impossibility of loading a large plant into a car, then a greenhouse and a shopping center should have their own delivery. This service is very convenient for flower growers.

And if you did not use the delivery service, then here is a recommendation on how to deliver the plant yourself and not ruin it.

Newspaper sheets, as everyone knows, are a good heat insulator. And if you are sure that you will have self-delivery of flowers, then I advise you to take a few newspapers with you. They will wrap the flowers in several layers and put them in a tight, non-blown bag. If the path is not close and several plants are bought, then you need to have a cardboard box with you. Just remember that flowers cannot be put in a cold box, it must be warmed up to room temperature, the bottom and sides must be covered with polyethylene and insulated with newspapers. Place the plants in a box and cover with newspaper sheets on top.

It is also worth paying attention to the pot. As a rule, the soil near shop flowers is always damp and, in order to avoid freezing of the soil, the pot must also be insulated. It may happen that you want to transport a flower from your home, then you need not water it for several days and let the soil dry out. This way the plant will not freeze and it will be easier to move.

Amateur flower growers and beginners, having read this article, and observing simple rules, will be able to arrange a comfortable winter for their flowers, which will help keep the plants in a vigorous and healthy state.


Indoor plants in winter

Most indoor plants are children of the tropics and subtropics, vegetating in their homeland all year round. Our cold winter, with short and often cloudy days, is a challenge for them to adapt to. Plant growth factors - light, heat, water, air, nutrition - are closely related to each other, therefore, a decrease in the length of daylight hours dictates the need to change other plant growth factors: a decrease (or termination) of watering, a decrease in the temperature of the content, the exclusion of fertilizers - the plants enter a state rest. In some plants, the presence of a dormant period is a biological feature of this species. Such plants need a vegetation pause to prepare for flowering, or it is "programmed" by nature as an opportunity to survive a "difficult time" - unfavorable for growth due to the peculiarities of the climate.

During the dormant period (it does not always coincide with our winter and is of different duration), some plants slow down or completely stop growth, while others lose leaves - complex physiological and biochemical processes take place, preparing plants for growth in the next season. At the same time, many plants need special conditions for keeping them in cool rooms (light or dark, depending on the needs of this type of plant). In many plant species, the most important stages of development (laying of flower buds, formation of buds, flowering) can normally take place only if certain conditions are met during different periods of growth. Azalea and camellia, cacti, orchids, bulbous plants are especially demanding in this respect.

Therefore, when planning the acquisition of a new plant, it is necessary, in addition to recommendations for care, to find out the conditions of its wintering and think about whether it is possible to provide them. Without proper wintering, the plant is ultimately doomed to death.

According to the conditions of detention in the winter months, indoor plants can be conditionally divided into the following groups:

- Hardy, adapting to any temperature of the living space - aloe, alocasia, aspidistra, cordilina, ivy, clivia, tradescantia, cyperus, etc.

- Heat-loving - aphelandra, codiaum, coffee tree, calathea, shefflera, aroid, bromeliads, many orchids, etc.

- Those in need of moderate temperatures - oleander, asparagus, agave, schlumberger, sansevier, fatsia, cyclamen, etc.

- Plants of cool content - hydrangea, fuchsia, pelargonium, laurel, boxwood, conifers, many cactus. Plants that need cool wintering with excessively warm room maintenance are depleted, suffer from pests and diseases, lay few flower buds, and lose their decorative effect. For their wintering, unheated conservatories or glazed insulated loggias are ideal. If they are still left to winter on the windowsill, where the temperature is several degrees lower than in the back of the room, then they move the pots as close to the glass as possible, protecting the plants from the influx of warm air from the room (screen, curtain), especially if next to the windowsill is located battery.

You need to think carefully about the winter placement of all plants in the room, since the temperature in different parts of the room is different. A continuous stream of cold air emanates from the window and balcony, from the floor next to them. Plants that need moderate temperatures overwintering on the windowsill are moved away from the frozen glass. In winter, it is recommended to put wooden coasters, trellises or lining of some kind of insulating material (paper, cloth) on a cold windowsill for them to protect the pots with plants from hypothermia. Irrigation water that has flowed into the pan must be poured out immediately, since cold "wet feet" from excessive watering of plants in winter is the cause of root rot and the appearance of diseases.

Plants who love warmth are placed near the window on a table or flower stands, but not on a cold floor. Tropical plants growing in nature in diffused light with the same temperature and humidity throughout the year can normally grow in a room in winter, but only if a set of conditions is provided: sufficient lighting with backlighting, warm soil, comfortable temperature and optimal humidity (ficus, philodendron , arrowroot, chlorophytum, royal and ever-flowering begonias, aglaonema, scindapsus, cyperus, cissus and others). Therefore, flower growers who provided tropical plants in winter with all the conditions for good growth, continue to lightly feed them with soluble complex fertilizers with microelements (much less often and in smaller quantities than during the active growing season). Fertilize also those plants that show signs of lack of nutrients. Plants that form buds and bloom in autumn and winter are also fed with phosphorus and potassium.

Plants that are facing the light source with only one side must be periodically rotated for uniform growth (with the exception of flowering plants that are painful to change position - for example, camellias, azaleas, begonias). The heat in the room, combined with the low light of the plants, leads to their overgrowth.

For plants, it is desirable that the night temperature is slightly lower than the daytime. In winter, the room temperature is regulated by ventilation. Most plants react negatively to significant changes in temperature, therefore, ventilate carefully, slightly opening the window for a short time (with the door closed to avoid drafts). Cold air should not get on the plants standing on the windowsill, therefore, during airing, they are removed from the window to another room or covered (often a cord is pulled over the plants, on which paper or cellophane is hung during airing).

In winter, when the heating batteries are operating, the air in the room becomes very dry, which negatively affects the plants and provokes the appearance of pests on them. Various measures are used to humidify the air, for example: washing and spraying plants (those who like such procedures) and the air around them; placing pots of wet sand, moss or expanded clay in trays; installing bowls with water on batteries; regularly turning on an electric air humidifier.

For especially valuable plants, optimal growth conditions are created all year round, including in winter, by placing them in a indoor florarium with a controlled microclimate.

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Indoor plants in winter - gardening

Aroid family. Homeland Central and South America, Asia. Scindapsus grows quickly and is rather unpretentious in indoor conditions. The main conditions are a warm room, not too dry air and periodic fertilizing. For scindapsus, it is convenient to use a tube with moss as a support, the plant is wrapped around it, and it grows to the top. You can grow the scindapsus as an ampelous plant, hanging the pot high, then the branches of the plant will hang down with a green carpet. Thus, the stems of the scindapsus, if not cut, reach 5-6 meters in length.

Scindapsus painted Scindapsus pictus - Liana with leathery ovoid or ovoid-oblong leaves about 10-15 cm long and 6-8 cm wide. The leaf plate on the upper side has an irregularly shaped bluish-whitish spots - stains.

Scindapsus golden Scindapsus aureus is a liana with oblong or heart-shaped leaves and golden spots on them. It is a species of Epipremnum pinnate Epipremnum pinnatum.

Temperature: Grows well in warm rooms at 18-20 ° C and at least 16 ° C in winter.

Lighting: Bright diffused light, obligatory shading from direct sunlight, especially in summer. In winter, good lighting is required, otherwise the leaves begin to shrink and lose color, so by winter, move the scindapsus closer to the window or arrange additional lighting.

Watering: should be regular, abundant in spring and summer, moderate in winter. The soil should not dry out or be too damp. Scindapsus does not tolerate excessive watering, the roots begin to rot.

Fertilizing watering during the period of active growth from March to October in a week, with liquid fertilizer for indoor plants. During the rest of the year, Scindapsus is fed once a month. If there is a lack of nutrients in the soil, then the young leaves become smaller. Especially it is necessary to feed large plants with long branches, otherwise the stems become bare and the plant loses its attractiveness.

Air humidity: Frequent spraying - likes humid air.

Transfer: Better annually in February - March. Soil - 1 part of leafy land, 1 part of peat, 1 part of humus and 1 part of sand.

Reproduction: Cuttings and layering.

Comfrey officinalis
For its medicinal properties, comfrey has received many names - larkspur (not to be confused with larkspur), right bone, lop-eared, omentum and others. Comfrey grows in damp meadows and ravines, in river floodplains and in forests.The most valuable part of the plant is a thick, branched, outwardly black, but grayish-white root in the middle, which is harvested for medicinal purposes in autumn or spring before the leaves appear. In our country, comfrey is widely used for many diseases. The Hutsuls bathed children in a decoction of its roots for rheumatic pains. In Galicia.

The use of meadowsweet in traditional medicine
Traditional medicine uses this plant for a variety of diseases. An infusion of herbs and meadowsweet flowers is prescribed by folk healers internally for colds, stomach catarrh, kidney disease, insomnia, anemia, ascites and gout. A decoction of meadowsweet is effective for hepatitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma and pneumonia. For its preparation, one tablespoon of dry grass is poured with a glass of hot water, boiled over low heat for 3-4 minutes, insisted for two hours. Take a decoction of two tablespoons three times a day before meals. Now scientists have found that meadowsweet about.

Green grafting method
The timing of green cuttings depends on the phase of development of the shoots. For stone fruit crops (cherry, plum, peach), green cuttings are most successful in the phase of intensive shoot growth, which is characterized by rapid growth, green color of the bark and weak lignification of the lower part of the shoot. In the middle lane, this phase usually falls on the first half of June. For crops such as apple, quince, gooseberry, lemon, and the like, the best dates fall at the end of the growth phase, when the shoots are semi-lignified, and the bark partially turns brown. Culture, ex.

Treating wounds on fruit trees
Depending on the type of damage, wounds in trees can be classified as follows: wounds from pruning or breaking of branches or part of the trunk, wounds from circular damage to bark and wood, wounds from partial damage to bark and wood, wounds from tearing and tearing off branches, neglected deep wounds - hollows, wounds from infectious diseases of the bark and wood. Preserving the further life of the fruit tree and its health in the future requires mandatory treatment of all these wounds. Treatment always begins with the removal of all damaged, frozen parts.

Why is stock-rose useful?
The stock rose is not only very beautiful, but also very useful. Its rhizomes and flowers are successfully used in folk medicine, and the rhizomes are similar in their healing properties to the marshmallow. For medicinal purposes, the stem-rose flowers are harvested together with the calyx during flowering. It is believed that flowers with a dark color are more suitable for medicinal purposes. Their infusion has enveloping, astringent and expectorant properties. For hoarseness, bronchitis, coughs and asthma, stem rose tea is very effective. Stacks are poured to prepare a healing drink.

Garden mini tractors
The purpose of the mini garden tractor is lawn care. Usually, they are not intended for plowing and other earthwork (although there are exceptions). The tractor that mows the lawn must not damage it. And therefore, the prevailing requirement for mini garden tractors is low weight and as little pressure as possible on the soil. Therefore, an indispensable element of the design is wide tires with a minimum tread permissible in height, if only to provide traction with the grass. The list of features of these tractors is very wide. Their about.

Reasons for early falling apples
As a rule, trees plant a large number of flower buds, much more than is required for the future harvest. From each fruit bud, 5 to 6 flowers bloom, but only 5-10 percent of them ultimately bear fruit. The rest of the flowers either do not set fruit, or the set fruit falls off shortly after flowering. The June shedding of the ovaries (self-cleaning) is a positive moment in the development of the fruit tree. Often the reason for the early fall of fruits is insufficient pollination of the flowers. The apple tree is a cross-pollinated crop,.

How to grow cucumber seedlings
Seeds for sowing should be taken massive, full-bodied, for which they are dipped in a 5 percent solution of sodium chloride for 20 minutes (50 g per 1 liter of water). At the same time, frail and small seeds float up. After that, the seeds are soaked for 12 hours in a fertilizer solution prepared at the rate of 1 liter of water 1 teaspoon of nitrophoska and 1 tablespoon of sifted wood ash For disinfection from viral diseases, pre-sowing heating of seeds is recommended for 3 days at a temperature of 50 degrees C and some days at 70 degrees C, and to get friendly shoots.

Basic methods of dealing with slugs
In late May - early June, young slugs are born from eggs overwintered in the soil, which develop for two months, reach a mature age during this time and begin to reproduce. The female lays eggs in the most humid places - under heaps of grass, debris, under lumps of earth, near the root collar of plants. Slugs are nocturnal. During the day, pests crawl under lumps of earth, hide under the plants, and at night they get out of their shelters and damage the plants. They harm the plantings of cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries, potatoes. I eat slugs.

The use of eleutherococcus spiny in medicine
Eleutherococcus prickly is popularly called a devil bush, wild pepper, prickly freeberry, prickly. The Americans have this unusually cute, exotic, strongly thorny bush with a dozen stems covered with shiny light green five-fingered leaves, better known as Siberian ginseng. The fact is that the preparations of Eleutherococcus truly act no worse than the popular root of life, and in some respects even surpass it. For example, Eleutherococcus shows excellent results in the treatment of cancer patients. The use of his drugs p.

The use of knotweed in traditional medicine
Practically the entire aerial part of the plant is used for medicinal purposes. Collect the grass during flowering, cutting off the tops without coarse lower leaves and stems. Raw materials are dried in attics or in a perfectly ventilated room, spreading it out in a thin layer on paper. Store in paper bags in a cool dry place. In folk medicine, knotweed has been used since ancient times for diseases of the kidneys, liver, for all types of gastritis, for diarrhea. In some countries, infusions of knotweed are used to treat tuberculosis. Fresh grass gruel is used to heal badly healing wounds.

Top dressing of horticultural crops with organomineral fertilizers
In the infusion of slurry or fresh grass (especially good for this, runny and nettles) are added mineral fertilizer: azofosk, ammofosk at the rate of 2 - 3 tbsp. spoons in a bucket of water. All this must be stirred and poured under fruit trees in 3 - 4 buckets, under bushes - 2 buckets each. For vegetable crops, the dose of mineral fertilizers should be reduced to 1 - 2 tbsp. spoons on a bucket of water.As a rule, by the end of the first decade of June, and maybe even earlier, powdery mildew may appear on currants and gooseberries (white bloom on the leaves, which later goes.


ESBE / Indoor gardening

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Indoor gardening. - This name refers to the upbringing of plants in ordinary living rooms. Indoor gardening is especially common in countries with long, harsh winters. To achieve a healthy state and proper development of plants raised in rooms, special techniques are used, which are largely different from those used in greenhouses due to unfavorable living conditions, for example. lateral direction of light and its small amount, dry air, abundance of dust, drafts, uneven temperature, etc. Under these conditions, only a limited number of plants are able to survive and develop successfully. The main contingent for constant maintenance in warm rooms are plants from the highlands of tropical and subtropical countries, where the air is relatively dry, winter and summer temperatures differ little from each other, and also its daily fluctuations are small. Various devices, such as terrariums and indoor greenhouses, can significantly increase the number of plants in this category, since almost all not too large plants found in moderately hot humid greenhouses can be raised in these devices. If the apartment has a cool, bright room with a temperature of 3 to 8 ° R., it can contain evergreens from countries with a temperate climate in winter, which need winter rest, but do not completely stop their vital functions at this time. Finally, the third category of indoor plants is represented by the so-called forcing plants, which remain in rooms only during the period of formation and blooming of flowers and, after flowering, are either thrown away, or planted in the open air, or are stored in a dark and dry place in the form of bulbs and tubers until the next flowering period. Only plants of the first category can be called strictly indoor, which remain in the room all year round. This includes many species of the genera from flowering plants: Aphelandra, Begonia, Clivia, Franciscea, Hedichium, Hibiscus, Hoya, Impatiens, Justicia, Torenia, Vinca, many cacti from the genera Cereus, Epiphyllum, Phyllocactus, Ripsalis, etc. from bulbous and tuberous Amaryllis Canna, Eucharis, Gloxinia, Haemaritus, Hipaeastrum, Hymenocallis, Pancratium, Tydaea, Vallota from aroid Anthurium, Calla from bromeliads Aechmea, Billhergia, Lamprococcus, Pitcairnia, Cyllandsia, Vriesysis, Cyploembloe, some species from orchids Lycaste, Odontoglossum, Phajus, Stanhopea, Zygopetalum, etc. Of the so-called deciduous plants cultivated for the beauty of foliage, this group includes many palm trees as pinnate: Areca, Calamus, Caryota, Chamaedorea, Cocos, Geonoma, Kentia, Phoenix, Seaforth etc., and fan-leaved: Chamaerops, Livistona, Pritchardia, Rhapis, Thrinax, etc. Of other deciduous plants, we will name Acalypha, Adiantum, Allosurus, Anthurium, Ar aucaria, Asplenium, Begonia, Calathea, Coffea, Cordyline, Criptomeria, Curculigo, Dracaena, Maranta, Monstera, Pandanus, Panicum, Peperomia, Philodendron, Pteris, almost all cacti and many others. others. The second group - plants for cool rooms - include those flowering: Abutilon, Acacia, Agapanthus, Agathea, Bouvardia, Calceolaria, Callistemon, Camellia, Campanula, Cheiranthus, Chrysanthemum, Citrus, Clerodendron, Cineraria, Correa, Cupheat, Cytisus, , Dianthus, Fuchsia, Heliotropium, Hydrangea, Lantana, Mimulus, Myosotis, Myrtus, Nerium, Pelargonium, Primula, Rosa, Sparmannia, Veronica, etc. others. Of deciduous plants for cool rooms, various species from the genera are most common: Agave, Aralia, Aucuba, Carex, Cinnamomum, Eugenia, Evonymus, Ficus, Ilex, Jucca, Juniperus, Laurus, Melaleuca, Ophiopogon, Phormium, Pittosporum, Plectogyne, Reineckia, Thuja, Tussilago, Villarezia and many others others. A strict boundary cannot be drawn between these two groups of plants, since due to their hardiness, many plants that prefer a cool content in winter, nevertheless, grow satisfactorily in warm rooms all year round. For early distillation in color in the rooms, mainly the so-called Dutch bulbs are used: hyacinths, tulips, daffodils and some. dr. Land for indoor plants must be prepared very carefully. Most of all, it goes into the composition of the soil of sod land, prepared from sod, cut in layers from fertile meadows with clay subsoil. Sod land, in which clay predominates, is called heavy, with a predominance of rotted plant residues - light. Then various humus lands are used - leaf, peat, heather, coniferous, dung, - obtained from the decomposition of substances from which these lands borrowed their name. They are all light. Finally, a necessary component of the soil for indoor plants is clean, not too fine river sand. For different plants, the named lands are mixed in different proportions. As a general rule, the following guidelines can be used: all plants with poorly developed or very thin roots, eg. ferns and more delicate plants raised in greenhouses are planted in light soil, for example. 1/3 light turf and 2/3 leaf or heather. Heavier ground, ex. a mixture of equal parts of clayey sod, manure and leafy soil, given to plants with a not particularly well-developed root system, but rapidly growing, such as fuchsia, pelargonium, etc. Finally, heavy soil, in which the clayey sod is from 1/2 to 2 / 3 of the total amount, given to plants with thick or fleshy roots, such as palms, dracaena, various bulbous and in general most houseplants. Sand is certainly added to all compositions in a proportion from 1/10 to 1/6 of the total amount of earth. For most orchids and many bromeliads, a special compost is used, made up of chopped marsh moss, roots of the Polipodium vulgare fern, broken shards and pieces of peat soil. the main dishes, used for planting indoor plants - baked porous clay pots. The best shape for pots is a truncated cone. The walls should not be thick. It is extremely harmful for plants to use glazed pots, which impede the access of air to the roots. The drain hole must be large enough. For planting large plants, tubs are used, mainly oak, in the bottom of which several drain holes are drilled. For planting orchids, in addition to ordinary pots, pots with holes or cuts in the walls, as well as baskets of wooden blocks or pieces of cork bark are used. Most often, pots are used, the height of which is equal to the upper diameter. For sowing seeds, bowls are used, that is, pots, the width of which is greater than the height. For primroses, some palms, etc., pots are used that are higher than wide ones. Indoor plants reproduce both naturally - by sowing, and artificially - by cuttings, division, grafting, etc. The techniques for this are the same as in greenhouses, but special precautions must be taken to maintain constant soil moisture, eliminate dust, drafts and the harmful effects of temperature changes. The best way to do this is to cover the seed pans and cuttings with sheet glass and glass hoods, or place them in glass distribution hothouses.

Plant transplant. Most herbaceous plants and soon-growing shrubs require replanting annually and sometimes even two to three times a summer. Slow-growing shrubs and trees are replanted annually at a young age, and less often as they grow. Ex. adult palms are content with one replanting every 2-3 years, and trees in tubs are replanted only when the tub is rotted away. The best time to transplant is spring, when growth resumes after winter rest. The plant to be transplanted is carefully knocked out of the pot and a part of the old earth is removed from the surface of the coma with a pointed stick, so that the clod is reduced by 1/4 - 1/3 of its size. In plants, the small roots of which form a kind of felt on the surface, some of the roots can be cut off without harm with a sharp knife, while in plants with thick roots that do not branch out, they should not be cut. New dishes are taken, if possible, only slightly larger than the old ones. As a general rule, it should be taken that the utensils for indoor plants are as small as possible in order to avoid spoilage of the soil not penetrated by roots. The drain hole is covered with a shard, with the convex side up, and above it, to facilitate the flow of water, sometimes a "drainage" is arranged from shards or plant fibers extracted from the sod land.It is useful to cover the shards with a thin layer of white marsh moss (Sphagnum) to prevent soil particles from clogging the drainage. A little pre-prepared mixture of earth is poured onto the drainage, then the plant is lowered into the pot and, supporting it for the first time in weight, the space between the walls of the pot and the lump is filled with earth, shaking and tapping the pot and lightly compacting the earth with a wooden stick, made in the form of a spatula. The plant should sit in the middle of the pot and the neck (where the trunk meets the roots) should not be buried in the ground to avoid rotting. The soil should be compacted so that, by taking the plant by the trunk, it can be lifted together with the pot. If the plant is transplanted due to damage to the soil, which can occur at any time of the year, then in most cases the new pot has to be taken less than the old one. The diseased roots are cut off with a sharp knife to a healthy place, and the wounds are sprinkled with finely crushed coal, which is also useful to mix in a small amount to the ground. After transplanting, water the plants and put them in a place protected from the sun for several days. Different plants require different degrees of moisture for successful growth and, moreover, not the same for the same plant at different times of the year. The general rules for watering are as follows: the smaller the pot, the lighter the earth, the higher the temperature in the room, the drier the air, the more often you should water. On the contrary, plants in large containers, in dense, heavy soil, in a cool and humid room - should be watered less often. Healthy, fast and luxurious plants should be watered more often than diseased and slow growing plants. In clear, sunny weather, watering should be done more often than in cloudy ones. In summer, during intensive growth, it is much more frequent than in winter. In spring and autumn, switch from sparse watering to frequent watering, and vice versa, should be gradual. The first time after transplanting should be watered with extreme caution. You can find out if a plant needs watering by a variety of signs. So, the dried earth becomes lighter on the surface, wet with a dry coma, the pot gives a clear, sonorous tone when tapped, and a dull tone with a wet coma. Plants with delicate foliage show signs of wilting when the soil is too dry. Sometimes a gap forms between the lump and the walls of the pot when the earth dries out. In this case, the poured water flows down the walls, the middle remains dry and the plant soon becomes ill. To eliminate this, it is necessary to carefully seal the gap before watering. The best water for irrigation is soft, free from lime salts, for example. rain or snow. The hard water is corrected by adding a small amount of potash. The water temperature should not be lower than the temperature of the room in which the plants are standing. In most cases, especially during intensive growth, it is useful to warm up the water for irrigation. Thus, almost all palms grow especially well if they are watered in spring and summer with water heated to 30-35 ° R. At room plant culture, fertilizing watering is sometimes useful. To do this, use a highly diluted infusion of water on fresh cow dung with the addition of wood ash, infusion of guano, chicken and pigeon droppings, as well as solutions of various salts and various chemical fertilizers commercially available. All of these solutions are only useful during increased plant growth. They should be used in very low doses, namely, no more than 1 part by weight of chemical fertilizer per 1000 parts of water. For plants that severely drain the soil, it is helpful to add a small amount of horn shavings, bone meal or oven soot to the ground when planting. Indoor plants must be kept clean, for which purpose - sweep dust from them as often as possible, and from time to time wash the leaves, branches and trunks with slightly warmed soapy water, using a sponge. Keeping plants clean often relieves plants from parasite attacks. More often than others, the following parasites attack indoor plants: thrips (Thrips haemorrhoidalis), red spider (Tetranichus telarius), various types of shield aphids (Aspidiotus, Lecanium, etc.), leaf aphids (Aphis), hairy aphids, or worms (Coccus), and others. Get rid of these pests by re-washing the plants with water infusion on shag or diluted tobacco extract. Recently, a kerosene emulsion is especially recommended for the destruction of insects: soapy water and kerosene are heated to 60 degrees R, then poured together and shaken strongly. For use, the emulsion is diluted with water and applied with a brush to areas affected by insects, and after a day or two, washed off with clean lukewarm water. They get rid of earthworms by watering the earth with a decoction of a green shell of walnuts or a solution of potassium permanganate (Kali hipermanganicum) in water. Worms crawl to the surface of the earth, and here they are caught. The same can be achieved by gradually lowering the pot into water heated to 45-50 ° R. From plant parasites, various cryptogams attack indoor plants, such as linen or powdery mildew - on roses and chrysanthemums and rust - on many other plants ... The affected parts of the plants are removed as soon as the parasite is noticed; the plants themselves are washed and sprinkled with sulfur. One of the most important causes of plant disease, which manifests itself in yellowing and leaf fall, is the dryness of the room air. It is fought with daily spraying of more delicate plants with a spray bottle. It is also useful to have a self-acting fountain in the room where the plants are. Decay of the lower part of the trunk occurs either from planting too deep, or from excessive watering. This disease is usually incurable. The roots get sick from both over-watering and over-drying. A plant with diseased roots should be transplanted according to the above rules. Leaf pallor or chlorosis is sometimes the result of root disease, and sometimes a lack of food. In the latter case, the plant should be transplanted into more nutritious soil or given liquid fertilizer. In general, it is extremely difficult to treat diseased plants in a room; it is much easier to protect them from disease with appropriate care. Regarding the heating of rooms where plants are raised, it should be noted that the best are systems connected to ventilation, and the air does not reach excessive dryness of heating; water and steam, like drying air, are harmful to plants. Gas lighting is harmful, since the presence of even a small amount of lamp gas in the air can destroy the most hardy plants. To maintain clean air, rooms with plants should be ventilated as often as possible. If the outside air temperature differs little from room temperature, then the windows or vents are simply opened, in cold weather the plants should be set aside far from the windows, and in frost they should even be taken out to the next room for airing. It is useful to expose many plants to the air in summer, others to keep them in light basements in winter, but most of these plants cannot be classified as "indoor" in the narrow sense of the word. Forcing Dutch bulbs is done as follows: in the fall, the bulbs are planted in pots or placed in special glass glasses filled with water and kept in a cool and dark place. When a flower arrow appears, the bulbs are rearranged on the windows of living rooms and at first protected from too bright light. Flowers bloom here, not inferior to the beauty of greenhouses. After flowering, these bulbs should not be preserved until next year, since their secondary flowering is much poorer and weaker than the first. Some other plants can also be driven into color in rooms, but the methods of this forcing are more complex and are more likely the property of forcing greenhouses. Wed Gesderfer, "Indoor gardening" (Russian translation by Semenov) Yashchenko, "Plants for living rooms and caring for them" E. Regel, "Maintenance and education of plants in rooms."


Indoor plants in winter - gardening

Aroid family. Homeland Central and South America, Asia. Scindapsus grows rapidly and is rather unpretentious in indoor conditions. The main conditions are a warm room, not too dry air and periodic fertilizing. For scindapsus, it is convenient to use a tube with moss as a support, the plant is wrapped around it, and it grows upward. You can grow the scindapsus as an ampelous plant, hanging the pot high, then the branches of the plant will hang down with a green carpet. Thus, the stems of the scindapsus, if not cut, reach 5-6 meters in length.

Scindapsus painted Scindapsus pictus - Liana with leathery ovoid or ovoid-oblong leaves about 10-15 cm long and 6-8 cm wide. The leaf plate on the upper side with irregularly shaped bluish-whitish spots - stains.

Scindapsus golden Scindapsus aureus is a liana with oblong or heart-shaped leaves and golden spots on them. It is a species of Epipremnum pinnate Epipremnum pinnatum.

Temperature: Grows well in warm rooms at 18-20 ° C and at least 16 ° C in winter.

Lighting: Bright diffused light, obligatory shading from direct sunlight, especially in summer. In winter, good lighting is required, otherwise the leaves begin to shrink and lose color, so by winter, move the scindapsus closer to the window or arrange additional lighting.

Watering: should be regular, abundant in spring and summer, moderate in winter. The soil should not dry out or be too damp. Scindapsus does not tolerate excessive watering, the roots begin to rot.

Fertilizing watering during the period of active growth from March to October in a week, with liquid fertilizer for indoor plants. During the rest of the year, Scindapsus is fed once a month. If there is a lack of nutrients in the soil, then the young leaves become smaller. Especially it is necessary to feed large plants with long branches, otherwise the stems become bare and the plant loses its attractiveness.

Air humidity: Frequent spraying - likes humid air.

Transfer: Better annually in February - March. Soil - 1 part of leafy land, 1 part of peat, 1 part of humus and 1 part of sand.

Reproduction: Cuttings and layering.

Garden strawberry
Traditionally, it is customary to plant strawberries in autumn, in September. Seedlings are taken from the May whiskers, and the next summer may be harvesting. But the planting of seedlings in spring is more successful if the seedlings have been available since autumn or have overwintered well on the plantations. This spring, indeed, countless seedlings are sold, strawberries, in spite of the harsh winter, wintered beautifully. New promising strawberry varieties are currently on sale: Pandora, Fireworks, Gigantella Maxim and others.

Composting the soil
Composting is an opportunity to create high-quality fertilizer from biological waste. This in no way means that a fruit-bearing garden must inevitably be littered with heaps of compost. Through annual mulching and harmonious plants - sederats, additional biological fertilizer is possible. Anyone who works with compost can simply lay an unconventional, extensively used compost heap. Two parallel ridges are superimposed vertically, at an angle of 60 ° -70 ° to the surface of the earth, close to each other, so that between.

Medicinal plants to strengthen the immune system
According to traditional healers, it is best to raise immunity with those medicinal herbs that grow in your area. Therefore, which medicinal drink to use is up to you. A good effect is given by taking in the form of a tincture or powder (in the morning) of the rhizomes of the golden root or Leuzea, Eleutherococcus or Schisandra chinensis. Very useful for immunity, especially with nervous, mental and physical exhaustion, tincture of flowering oats. You can also take in the form of a decoction of oat grains (cereals) 50-100 g three times a day. The most accessible in the cold.

The healing properties of the snake mountaineer
The name of the serpentine mountaineer or serpentine received because of its short, thick, serpentine curved and somewhat flattened rhizome. Popularly, the mountaineer is often called crayfish necks, since his rhizome with transverse folds vaguely resembles the tail of the crayfish (neck). Highlander grows as a rule in thickets in damp floodplain meadows, along rivers, along the shores of lakes, in sparse damp spruce forests. This tall, slender, winter-hardy plant with erect stems up to one and a half meters in height blooms in May-July with pale pink flowers, collected.

How to choose a garden pruner
Caring for plants includes not only timely watering, feeding and loosening the soil, but also their correct formation. And most often for this purpose, gardeners, florists and gardeners use pruning shears. Moreover, in the arsenal you need not one, but several, because you have to solve various problems. When buying a pruner, make sure how easy it is thanks to the spring to converge and spread the blades, because the productivity of your labor directly depends on this. The spring is possible from a wire or plate. More reliable and durable than spiral wire.

Species and varietal features of the formation and pruning of plums
Like other stone fruits, plum is characterized by intensive growth, early maturity, and regular fruiting. Her generative buds are simple and, unlike apple and pear, are located on the sides of fruiting branches. Riding buds are always vegetative. Plum bears fruit on bouquet branches, spurs, mixed fruit branches. Generative buds are also formed on the lower part of long growth shoots. The main systems for the formation of plum trees are sparse-tiered and tiered. They are most appropriate for the formation of trees with.

Tarragon wormwood
Tarragon is a good preservative for homemade preparations. The spice helps to preserve the natural color of the product, improves the taste and smell of vegetables. Tarragon is used for pickling and pickling cucumbers, tomatoes, mushrooms, for pickling cabbage, for flavoring vinegar and sauces. It is added to fish dishes, vegetables, side dishes, salads, cheese and sour milk. Fresh tarragon is placed in a dish just before serving, dried - a few minutes before being ready. It is believed that the taste and aroma of fresh tarragon will be more pronounced if the dish is lightly sauteed.

The use of the tartar in folk medicine
Traditional healers advise infusions and decoctions of the tartar for malignant neoplasms, especially for cancer of the uterus, skin and for the prevention of metastases after removal of tumors. It is believed that the use of the tartar has a positive effect on the depressed state of health of the patient and gives him vigor. It has been experimentally established that the drugs of the tartar are low-toxic and do not cause side effects with prolonged use. However, it should be used with caution in hypertensive patients, tk. tartar increases blood pressure. Flower baskets are used for treatment.

Which greenhouse to choose
Nowadays, you can not only build a greenhouse with your own hands from scrap materials, but also buy a ready-made one in specialized stores. In either case, it will be useful for gardeners to learn a few rules that will help you choose a model that is suitable for the conditions of their garden plots. Decide what you need a greenhouse for: to obtain bountiful crops of nightshade and pumpkin, or to grow seedlings, early greens and radishes. In the latter case, for example, you can get by with a small greenhouse. Decide what varieties you are going to grow.

Growing quince
High yield, excellent early maturity, its valuable fruits for juices, compotes, preserves, jams put quince in a number of promising crops. Quince is an excellent rootstock for pears, especially if you need to grow small trees with a compact crown, convenient for pruning, spraying and harvesting. Huge pear-shaped trees in small garden plots sometimes shade the neighboring crops very much and produce essentially little fruit and a lot of wood. If you plant zoned pear varieties on quince, then success is guaranteed.In our country, different species are grown.

Cabbage juice cures many diseases
Cabbage is on our table both on weekdays and on holidays. It has one more important purpose - it heals us from many diseases. In this sense, the opinion of the ancient Romans is interesting, who believed that if there was any disease inside, "cabbage will cure everything, drive the pain out of the head and eyes." In their opinion, cabbage gives strength to the body and resistance against various diseases, eliminates insomnia and soothes headaches. Our folk medicine also attaches great importance to cabbage. Fresh leaves and cabbage juice are medicinal raw materials. Cal.

Comfrey officinalis
For its medicinal properties, comfrey has received many names - larkspur (not to be confused with larkspur), right bone, lop-eared, omentum and others. Comfrey grows in damp meadows and ravines, in river floodplains and in forests. The most valuable part of the plant is a thick, branched, outwardly black, but grayish-white root in the middle, which is harvested for medicinal purposes in autumn or spring before the leaves appear. In our country, comfrey is widely used for many diseases. The Hutsuls bathed children in a decoction of its roots for rheumatic pains. In Galicia.


Indoor plants in winter - gardening

Aroid family. Homeland Central and South America. Syngonium grows rapidly and is rather unpretentious in indoor conditions.

Syngonium leg-leaved Syngonium podophyllum - with light green heart-shaped leaves, about 7-13 cm long on long petioles. The leaf plate is divided from 3-11 segments, usually accrete. There are variegated varieties that differ in the shape and color of the spots on the leaves. It does not bloom in indoor conditions.

Syngonium auricular Syngonium auritum - with dark green leaves and a bluish stem and well-developed aerial roots in the nodes. The leaf is separate from 3 to 5 segments, with a larger central segment. Differs in rapid growth. Sometimes it blooms - an inflorescence of a cob with a cover about 5 cm, light green with a reddish spot on the inside.

Syngonium Wendland Syngonium wendlandii - with dark green leaves on long petioles, tripartite. The central segment is up to 10 cm long, the lateral ones are up to 15 cm.The leaf surface is velvety, the central vein is silvery

It is very convenient to use a tube with moss as a support for the syngonium, the plant itself winds around it and grows upward, reaching 1.5 - 1.8 meters in height. You can grow syngonium as an ampelous plant by hanging the pot high, then the branches of the plant will hang down with a green carpet. Syngonium is also well suited for growing as a hydroponic crop.

The syngonium is notable for the fact that it changes the shape of the leaves with age - in young plants they are arrow-shaped, and in older plants, the leaves with pronounced lobes and resemble an irregularly shaped star, in which one of the rays is elongated.

Temperature: Grows well in warm rooms at 18-20 ° C, and in winter at least 16 ° C

Lighting: Bright diffused light, obligatory shading from direct sunlight, especially in summer. Syngonium species with dark green leaves tolerate light partial shade, variegated varieties are more photophilous. In winter, good lighting is required, otherwise the leaves begin to shrink and lose color, so by winter, move the syngonium closer to the window.

Watering: should be regular, abundant in spring and summer, moderate in winter. The soil should not dry out or be too damp.

Fertilizing watering during the period of active growth from March to August in two weeks, with liquid fertilizer for indoor plants. If there is a lack of nutrients in the soil, then the young leaves become smaller.

Air humidity: Frequent spraying - likes humid air.

Transfer: Every two years in the spring. Soil - 1 part leaf, 1 part peat, 1 part humus, 1 part sand.

Reproduction: Cuttings and layering.

Wooden houses
Wooden houses are the most environmentally friendly and recognized among gardeners and summer residents. But wooden houses are also different - from a bar, rounded logs, these are the most common materials these days. The durability and quality of the house depends on the processing of the wood, as well as protection - for this it is impregnated with special solutions. If a wooden house is properly looked after, then its service life is up to 100 years. In our country, the construction of houses from ordinary logs was widespread - it is cheaper, but construction becomes more labor-intensive, therefore.

Removing excess heat from the greenhouse
If we build a greenhouse ourselves, then we can immediately design it so that it is convenient for us and for the plants. The greenhouse must be warm, but not too warm, and the greenhouse design must be functional, i.e. perform the function for which it is intended: to maintain the optimum temperature and humidity for plant growth. Imagine that the Sun is a powerful free stove that turns on in the morning and turns off in the evening every day. It heats up the greenhouse in minutes. This is very convenient, if not for one problem. D.

Raspberry gray rot (botrytis)
At the beginning of its development, berries are affected: separate softened brown spots are formed on them. The spots grow quickly and cause complete rotting of the berries, which are covered with a thick gray velvety bloom. Berries become unsuitable for human consumption. Brown spots appear on the stalks, quickly covering them in a ring, which inevitably causes drying of the still green ovaries. On the leaves, gray rot forms massive blurry dark gray decaying spots. After that, with a strong development of the disease on young shoots, it occurs in internodes.

Growing quince
High yield, excellent early maturity, its valuable fruits for juices, compotes, preserves, jams put quince in a number of promising crops. Quince is an excellent rootstock for pears, especially if you need to grow small trees with a compact crown, convenient for pruning, spraying and harvesting. Huge pear-shaped trees in small garden plots sometimes shade the neighboring crops very much and produce essentially little fruit and a lot of wood. If you plant zoned pear varieties on quince, then success is guaranteed.In our country, different species are grown.

Film greenhouses
First of all, the film is much lighter, has elasticity and flexibility. Therefore, it is not afraid of ground vibrations, which in places of earthquakes are fatal to glass. This becomes useful if the base is loosely compacted and begins to sag, which leads to distortions, cracks in the glass through the weighting of the frame, which holds snow loads. Consequently, the frame for the film can be made lighter, therefore, the metal consumption of the structure is much less, the greenhouse will cost less than a glass one. There is no need for complex calculations, for example, wind and snow loads.

The healing properties of melon seeds
The healing properties of melon pulp have been known since ancient times. But, as it turned out, the seeds of this sweet miracle fruit, which we usually throw away without hesitation, are of no less medicinal value. From time immemorial, they were considered the strongest aphrodisiac and a means of increasing potency in men. Traditional healers still advise taking melon seeds for the treatment of impotence and prostate gland. Seeds dried and crushed in a coffee grinder should be eaten one teaspoon on an empty stomach in the morning and at night, and one more.

Mylnyanka
This plant is famous for its foam when rubbed with water. This is due to the content of up to 20 percent triterpene saponins (soap substances) in the soap dish, due to which the decoction of the plant foams like soap and is used for washing woolen and silk fabrics. Among the people, soapwort is not considered a poisonous plant, however, according to some literary data, "flowers and roots with water are poisonous when rubbed." It improves metabolism, perfectly dissolves thick phlegm and mucous membranes.

Film greenhouse
If you are just starting your gardening activity, then choose a film greenhouse. A film greenhouse is a simplified version of a greenhouse. As a rule, it consists of several prefabricated arcs and longitudinal prefabricated elements, which are attached to each other, and a film is stretched over them from above. In such greenhouses, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, vegetable and flower seedlings, greens are grown. Remember that the most important thing in a greenhouse is the quality of the film, the prevailing indicator when choosing which is its density, which is calculated in microns (microns). Than.

Indoor plants with medicinal properties
The air in our city apartments sometimes consists of many harmful substances emitted by synthetic surfaces and furniture, televisions, computers and household appliances. All these bad factors can be neutralized with indoor plants. There are three main groups of plants that can be grown for prophylactic and medicinal purposes at home. The first group includes plants whose phytoncides have a pronounced antimicrobial activity. These include citrus fruits, rosemary, fragrant pelargonium, Coleus Bloom, aloe.

Basic methods of dealing with slugs
In late May - early June, young slugs are born from eggs overwintered in the soil, which develop for two months, reach a mature age during this time and begin to reproduce. The female lays eggs in the most humid places - under heaps of grass, debris, under lumps of earth, near the root collar of plants. Slugs are nocturnal. During the day, pests crawl under lumps of earth, hide under the plants, and at night they get out of their shelters and damage the plants. They harm the plantings of cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries, potatoes. I eat slugs.

Kalina with honey helps with bronchitis
Kalina is often used to treat bronchitis. To prepare a medicinal drug, half a glass of viburnum berries is poured into 0.5 liters of hot water and boiled, stirring for ten minutes. Then the mixture is slightly cooled, three tablespoons of honey are added to it and taken four times a day, 100 ml. For bronchitis and pneumonia, a mixture made from two glasses of viburnum, carefully ground in one glass of honey, is also useful. The mixture is allowed to brew for five to six hours and taken five to six times a day, one tablespoon. With bronchitis, accompanied by.

Planting an apple orchard
When placing trees, observe the basic methods of permissible thickening of trees and their compatibility with each other. The planting scheme must correspond to the intended shape of the crown of the trees. The apple tree loves good lighting, so tall trees should be placed on the north side of the site so that they do not shade berries and vegetables. First mark the distance between the rows, and then the seats in the row. Apple trees can be planted in spring or autumn. In central Russia, it is preferable to plant fruit trees in early autumn (1.


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